Peloruside A: a lead non-taxoid-site microtubule-stabilizing agent with potential activity against cancer, neurodegeneration, and autoimmune disease
Covering: 2000 up to 2016
Peloruside A, a macrocyclic secondary metabolite from a New Zealand marine sponge, Mycale hentscheli, has shown potent antiproliferative activity in cultured cancer cells as well as inhibitory effects on tumor growth in mouse models. The compound also has promising effects against cell models of neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases. In mechanistic studies, peloruside A shares with paclitaxel (Taxol®) the ability to stabilize microtubules by binding to β-tubulin. Peloruside A, however, occupies a unique external site on β-tubulin that does not overlap the classical taxoid site that is located on the inside of the microtubule. As such, peloruside A has been of central importance in defining a new microtubule-stabilizer binding site localized on the exterior surface of the microtubule that has led to increased interest in the design of an upscaled total synthesis of the natural product and its analogues. Here, we review advances in the biochemical and biological validation of peloruside A as an attractive therapeutic candidate for the treatment of cancer, neurodegeneration, and autoimmune disease.