A facile synthesis of mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride supported palladium nanoparticles as highly effective and reusable catalysts for Stille coupling reactions under mild conditions†
The development of a Stille coupling protocol that is operable under moderate conditions without using a base is highly required for the synthetic organic chemistry community, which requires an efficient nanocatalyst. In this respect, addressed herein is a facile one-pot synthesis of mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (mpg-CN) supported Pd NPs, denoted as mpg-CN/Pd hereafter, and investigation of their catalytic activity in Stille cross-coupling reactions for the first time. It has been demonstrated that mpg-CN nanosheets can serve as not only a support material but also a stabilizer for the generation of 4.5 nm Pd NPs. The ecofriendly generated heterogeneous nanocatalyst was characterized by TEM, XRD, XPS, BET surface area and ICP-MS analysis. The mpg-CN/Pd nanocatalysts showed high activity in the Stille coupling reaction of a variety of electron-deficient and electron-rich aryl iodides/bromides and two different organostannanes with a wide substrate scope to afford the corresponding biaryls without using any bases and additional ligands under relatively mild conditions. The catalyst can be easily recovered from the reaction medium by centrifugation. It can be reused at least 5 times without any loss of activity.