Stability and characterization of the structure II binary clathrate hydrate of the refrigerant trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene + methane†
We report the phase diagram and structure of the binary clathrate hydrate (abbreviated as hydrate) of methane + trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234ze(E)) guest molecules by phase equilibrium measurements, powder X-ray diffraction measurements, and molecular dynamics simulations. The four-phase (methane-rich gas + water + HFO-1234ze(E) liquid + solid clathrate hydrate) equilibrium data in the system were measured in the temperature range of 274.3 K to 280.2 K. At temperatures from 274.3 K to 276.6 K, the phase equilibrium pressures of the binary hydrate were lower, by a maximum of 0.27 MPa, than those in a pure methane structure I clathrate hydrate system three phase equilibrium line. This indicates that the hydrate formed from the binary mixture was different from a simple methane hydrate. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the binary hydrate sample prepared at 274.3 K and pressures from 2.65 to 2.94 MPa. The X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that a structure II hydrate was formed in the system. This is somewhat surprising as the longest molecular dimension of HFO-1234ze(E) is similar to that of 2-methylbutane that forms a structure H hydrate. To clarify some of the aspects of the behavior of the binary hydrate, molecular dynamics simulations were performed. These calculations show that the HFO-1234ze(E) molecules do not form hydrogen bonds with the cage water molecules but are closely interacting with the cage water molecules via electrostatic and van der Waals interactions.