Photocatalytic secondary amine synthesis from azobenzenes and alcohols on TiO2 loaded with Pd nanoparticles†
Photoirradiation (λ > 300 nm) of TiO2 loaded with Pd nanoparticles (ca. 2 wt%, 5 nm diameter) in water containing alcohols and azobenzene derivatives at room temperature successfully produces the corresponding secondary amines with high yields. This is facilitated via consecutive photocatalytic and catalytic reactions: (i) photocatalytic oxidation of alcohols (aldehyde formation) and reduction of azobenzenes (aniline formation); (ii) catalytic condensation of the formed aldehydes with anilines on the TiO2 surface (imine formation); and (iii) photocatalytic hydrogenation of the formed imines (secondary amine formation). This catalytic system successfully produces several kinds of secondary amines with >80% yields.