Dipole controlled Schottky barrier in the blue-phosphorene-phase of GeSe based van der Waals heterostructures
Controlling the interface structure is of utmost importance to regulating the nanoscale Schottky barrier height (SBH). Herein, by using first-principles calculations, the electronic properties of the graphene (G) based blue-phosphorene-phase of GeSe van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures, including M/G and X/G interfaces (M = Ge; X = Se), are systematically investigated. When the layer spacing exceeds the vdW gap, n-type Schottky contacts are formed for both MX/G and XM/G heterojunctions. With the layer spacing decreasing to equilibrium distances, due to different charge transfer across the interface, MX/G and XM/G heterojunctions display n- and p-type Schottky contacts, respectively. Further decreasing the layer distance makes both heterojunctions transit into p-type ones. The layer-spacing-dependent SBHs can be rationalized by the increased charge transfer across the interface and the resulting interfacial dipole enhancement. Enlightened by the finding of dipole-controlled SBHs, using MX as building blocks, two different stacking patterns, i.e., nMX–MX–G and nXM–XM–G (n = 1 and 2), are designed to further modulate the SBH. Interestingly, due to the presence of the intrinsic dipole of MX, it is found that the magnitude and orientation of the interfacial dipole can be artificially engineered. With n increasing from 0 to 2, nMX–MX–G with an X/G interface changes from the n-type Schottky contact to Ohmic contact. The Fermi level meets the conduction band and G shows a p-type doping feature finally. Likewise, transition from p-type Schottky contact to Ohmic contact is observed for the nXM–XM–G with M/G interface, accompanied by the Fermi level touching the valence band and the feature of n-type doping for G. The role of nMX stacking seems like the role of applying an external electric field (E-field): applying positive E-field is equivalent to the increase of dipole moment while negative E-field corresponds to the offset of dipole moment. In brief, the SBHs of GeSe/G contact are found to be tunable which originates from the intrinsic dipole of MX. The predictable SBHs for these kinds of charming built-in dipole systems are expected to be highly desirable in electronic devices.