High power Na3V2(PO4)3 symmetric full cell for sodium-ion batteries†
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are a viable substitute for lithium-ion batteries due to the low cost and wide availability of sodium. However, practical applications require the development of fast charging sodium-ion-based full-cells with high power densities. Na3V2(PO4)3 (NVP) is a bipolar material with excellent characteristics as both a cathode and an anode material in SIBs. Designing symmetric cells with NVP results in a single voltage plateau with significant specific capacity which is ideal for a full cell. Here we demonstrate for the first time a tremendous improvement in the performance of NVP symmetric full cells by introducing an ether-based electrolyte which favors fast reaction kinetics. In a symmetric full cell configuration, 75.5% of the initial capacity was retained even after 4000 cycles at 2 A g−1, revealing ultra-long cyclability. Excellent rate performances were obtained at current densities as high as 1000C, based on the cathode mass, revealing ultrafast Na+ transfer. The power density obtained for this NVP symmetric cell (48 250 W kg−1) is the best among those of all the sodium-ion-based full cells reported to date.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Popular Advances