Recent advances in environmentally benign hierarchical inorganic nano-adsorbents for the removal of poisonous metal ions in water: a review with mechanistic insight into toxicity and adsorption
Recent developments in nanoscience and technology have addressed many of the problems associated with water quality. Accordingly, using the technological outputs of the recent research on nanomaterials, the best solution for the purification of water is highlighted in this review. Herein, the main objective is to provide mechanistic insight into the synthesis of various inorganic nanoadsorbents and their adsorption chemistry for poisonous metal ions present in polluted water. Initially, the toxicity and carcinogenicity of As3+, Pb2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, and Hg2+ metal ions are highlighted. For the removal of these toxic ions, this review focuses on eco-friendly nanoadsorbents. The various preparation procedures utilized for the preparation of nanoadsorbents are briefly discussed. Generally, this is because of the adsorption capacity of nanoadsorbents depends on their morphology, shape, size, surface area, surface active sites, functional groups, and quantization effect. Also, due to the importance of their mechanism of action, the recent developments and challenges of novel nanoadsorbents such as metal oxides, core shell nanoparticles, magnetic nano ferrates, and functionalized core shell magnetic oxides and the processes for the treatment of water contaminated by toxic metal ions such as As3+, Pb2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, and Hg2+ are exclusively reviewed. Further, the adsorption efficiency of inorganic nanoadsorbents is also compared with that of activated carbon derived from various sources for all the above-mentioned metal ions.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles