Polystyrene enhanced crystallization of perovskites towards high performance solar cells
Perovskite solar cells have attracted significant attention due to their high efficiency and low cost. In the research on methylammonium lead-iodide (CH3NH3PbI3), a lot of work has been devoted to optimize the film morphology and crystallinity resulting in an enhancement of the power conversion efficiency (PCE). A good surface coverage and uniform perovskite films are highly desirable along with a smooth and pinhole-free contact between the hole and electron extraction layers. Overall, this affects the charge transport and collection, and reduces charge recombination. Herein, we demonstrate a facile route to control perovskite crystallization by inserting an optimal amount of insulating polystyrene in the perovskite precursor solutions. The incorporation of a small amount of polystyrene results in much better surface coverage, and a smoother and uniform perovskite thin film leading to improved crystallization and larger grain size. Via careful optimization, and easy and low temperature solution-based processing, below 100 °C, we realize a device with PCE exceeding 13% along with significantly reduced leakage current.