ROS-mediated lipid peroxidation as a result of Cu(ii) interaction with FomA protein fragments of F. nucleatum: relevance to colorectal carcinogenesis†
The ability of the studied FomA protein fragments of Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) with copper(II) ions (Cu(II)-Ac-KGHGNGEEGTPTVHNE-NH2 (1Cu) and its cyclic analogue Cu(II)-cyclo(KGHGNGEEGTPTVHNE) (2Cu)) to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, as a result of red-ox processes, was determined by UV-Vis, luminescence methods, spin trapping and cyclic voltamperometry. The contribution of 1O2 and ˙OH to DNA degradation was proved using gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the pronounced generation of ROS by mouse colon carcinoma cells (CT26) stimulated by both copper(II) complexes was confirmed. A fluorescence method allowed the total amounts of ROS generated inside the CT26 cells to be detected, while the spin trapping technique proved that free radicals mainly attached to the membrane surface. These last results are in agreement with the data obtained from the ICP-MS method, which demonstrates that 1Cu and 2Cu complexes are not efficiently accumulated inside the cell. Furthermore, the role of ROS in lipid peroxidation was established. The above-mentioned factors may clearly indicate the contribution of ROS generated by the studied copper(II) complexes to colonic cell damage, which can lead to a carcinogenesis process. This study may be an important step to recognize and understand the mechanism of colon cancer initiation.