Engineered functionalized 2D nanoarchitectures for stimuli-responsive drug delivery
The external surfaces of two-dimensional (2D) nanoarchitectures are easily functionalized to confer attractive and unique properties in nanomedicine. On the basis of the high surface area for desired drug-loading capacity, efficient cell uptake, attractive biocompatibility, and established chemical functionalization routes, layered nanoarchitectures as hosts are significantly exploited to function as intelligent drug delivery platforms for chemotherapy and combined therapies. Additionally, functionalization on the surfaces of 2D nanomaterials is subsequently integrated with stimuli-responsive characteristics and, thus, 2D hybrid-based drug release platforms equipped with the characteristics of triggered cargo release contribute to improving therapy efficacy with simultaneously diminished side effects. Herein, we briefly introduce the classification of 2D nanomaterials integrated with chemical functionalization, with a complete list of responsive endogenous and exogenous triggers. Comparisons between diverse 2D nanoarchitectures are highlighted and proposed horizons are also presented for addressing current drawbacks that are affecting their potential clinical applications.