Methods for monitoring and measurement of protein translation in time and space
Regulation of protein translation constitutes a crucial step in control of gene expression. In comparison to transcriptional regulation, however, translational control has remained a significantly under-studied layer of gene expression. This trend is now beginning to shift thanks to recent advances in next-generation sequencing, proteomics, and microscopy based methodologies which allow accurate monitoring of protein translation rates, from single target messenger RNA molecules to genome-wide scale studies. In this review, we summarize these recent advances, and discuss how they are enabling researchers to study translational regulation in a wide variety of in vitro and in vivo biological systems, with unprecedented depth and spatiotemporal resolution.