A lab-on-chip device for the sample-in-result-out detection of viable Salmonella using loop-mediated isothermal amplification and real-time turbidity monitoring†
Rapid screening of foodborne pathogens is key to prevent food poisoning. In this study, a lab-on-chip device was developed for rapid, automatic and sensitive detection of viable Salmonella typhimurium using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and smartphone real-time turbidity monitoring. First, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) coated with anti-Salmonella capture antibodies in propidium monoazide (PMA) were fully mixed with bacterial samples using two active magnetic stirring mixers at reverse rotating directions, and incubated in the serpentine channel with 470 nm blue light exposure, allowing specific formation of magnetic bacteria and sufficient PMA pretreatment of the DNA of dead bacteria. Then, the PMA-treated magnetic bacteria were separated in the separation chamber using the magnetic field and their genomic DNA templates were extracted using lysis buffer at 70 °C. Finally, the viable bacteria's DNA was amplified using LAMP in the detection chamber preloaded with the lyophilized LAMP reagents at 67.5 °C after blocking with paraffin oil to avoid aerosol cross contamination. Finally, the turbidity of the LAMP reaction system was monitored in a real-time manner for the quantitative detection of viable bacteria. The experimental results demonstrated that this device was able to automatically detect viable Salmonella as low as 14 CFU mL−1 in spiked chicken meat supernatants within 1.5 h. This device is very promising to provide a sample-in-result-out solution for the in-field detection of Salmonella and could be easily extended for other foodborne pathogens.