Recent experimental and industrial advances in the field of nanotechnologies have boosted the development of interdisciplinary research, one of the most constructive and inspiring of human pursuits. Many scientists specialize in manufacturing new forms of nanomaterials that hold promise for various applications such as medical diagnosis and therapy, environmental monitoring, energy production and storage, molecular computing and much more. Graphene, an increasingly important nanosized material reported in 2004, has emerged to become an exciting two-dimensional material with distinct attributes that has attracted great interest in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology and medicine, as well as their related interdisciplinarities. The unique nature of graphene makes it stand out and applicable to various technologies. Its photoelectric properties and inherent Raman spectroscopy make it an ideal candidate for the development of new devices and methods in many branches of life sciences and technology. The electronic properties of graphene make it a highly useful nanomaterial. It carries a high charge mobility which allows it to be extensively applied to field effect transistors. Graphene also has unparalleled transparency and conductivity, making it a viable electrode in solar cells. In addition, the specific area of graphene makes energy storage possible. Although these properties are inherent to the compound, graphene can also be modified into a better nanomaterial. Due to its outstanding performance, graphene development shows great promise in several scientific fields. This paper aims to elaborate on the details of current studies using graphene with regards to the optical and electronic characteristics, fabrication techniques, and various relevant applications.
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