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Issue 41, 2011
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Water dispersible ultra-small multifunctional KGdF4:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanoparticles with near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion

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Abstract

Ultra-small multifunctional KGdF4:Tm3+,Yb3+ nanoparticles with near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion are synthesized. The average sizes of KGdF4:Tm3+ 2%, Yb3+ 20% core-only and KGdF4:Tm3+ 2%, Yb3+ 20%/KGdF4 core–shell nanoparticles are ∼3.7 nm and ∼7.4 nm, respectively, which fall within the reported optimal sizes (<10 nm) for bioimaging probes. The excitation and emission at 980 and 803 nm are favorable to deeper tissue penetration and reduced autofluorescence. The weak upconversion luminescence of the ultra-small core-only nanoparticles is overcome by the use of the core–shell approach. The magnetic mass susceptibility and magnetization of the ultra-small core-only and core–shell nanoparticles were determined, and are close to those of large nanoparticles (26 and 50 nm) used for magnetic resonance imaging and bio-separation. There is no variation in the magnetic properties with the nanoparticles’ sizes between the core-only (∼3.7 nm) and core–shell (∼7.4 nm) nanoparticles, which differs from the size-dependent luminescence. The oleate-capped core–shell nanoparticles were further encapsulated with a PEG-phospholipid shell to endow them with dispersibility in water, which is indispensable for future biological applications.

Graphical abstract: Water dispersible ultra-small multifunctional KGdF4:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanoparticles with near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion

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Publication details

The article was received on 17 Jun 2011, accepted on 30 Aug 2011 and first published on 21 Sep 2011


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C1JM12796A
Citation: J. Mater. Chem., 2011,21, 16589-16596

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    Water dispersible ultra-small multifunctional KGdF4:Tm3+, Yb3+ nanoparticles with near-infrared to near-infrared upconversion

    H. Wong, F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, H. L. W. Chan, J. Hao and J. A. Capobianco, J. Mater. Chem., 2011, 21, 16589
    DOI: 10.1039/C1JM12796A

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