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Issue 25, 2010
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Synthesis and characterization of highly photoresponsive fullerenyl dyads with a close chromophore antenna–C60 contact and effective photodynamic potential

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Abstract

We report the synthesis of a new class of photoresponsive C60–DCE–diphenylaminofluorene nanostructures and their intramolecular photoinduced energy and electron transfer phenomena. Structural modification was made by chemical conversion of the keto group in C60(>DPAF-Cn) to a stronger electron-withdrawing 1,1-dicyanoethylenyl (DCE) unit leading to C60(>CPAF-Cn) with an increased electronic polarization of the molecule. The modification also led to a large bathochromic shift of the major band in visible spectrum giving measureable absorption up to 600 nm and extended the photoresponsive capability of C60–DCE–DPAF nanostructures to longer red wavelengths than C60(>DPAF-Cn). Accordingly, C60(>CPAF-Cn) may allow 2γ-PDT using a light wavelength of 1000–1200 nm for enhanced tissue penetration depth. Production efficiency of singlet oxygen by closely related C60(>DPAF-C2M) was found to be comparable with that of tetraphenylporphyrin photosensitizer. Remarkably, the 1O2 quantum yield of C60(>CPAF-C2M) was found to be nearly 6-fold higher than that of C60(>DPAF-C2M), demonstrating the large light-harvesting enhancement of the CPAF-C2M moiety and leading to more efficient triplet state generation of the C60> cage moiety. This led to highly effective killing of HeLa cells by C60(>CPAF-C2M) via photodynamic therapy (200 J cm−2 white light). We interpret the phenomena in terms of the contributions by the extended π-conjugation and stronger electron-withdrawing capability associated with the 1,1-dicyanoethylenyl group compared to that of the keto group.

Graphical abstract: Synthesis and characterization of highly photoresponsive fullerenyl dyads with a close chromophore antenna–C60 contact and effective photodynamic potential

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
16 Jan 2010
Accepted
31 Mar 2010
First published
21 May 2010

J. Mater. Chem., 2010,20, 5280-5293
Article type
Paper

Synthesis and characterization of highly photoresponsive fullerenyl dyads with a close chromophore antenna–C60 contact and effective photodynamic potential

L. Y. Chiang, P. A. Padmawar, J. E. Rogers-Haley, G. So, T. Canteenwala, S. Thota, L. Tan, K. Pritzker, Y. Huang, S. K. Sharma, D. B. Kurup, M. R. Hamblin, B. Wilson and A. Urbas, J. Mater. Chem., 2010, 20, 5280
DOI: 10.1039/C0JM00037J

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