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Issue 45, 2007
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Flame aerosol synthesis of smart nanostructured materials

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Recent advances in aerosol and combustion science and engineering now allow scalable flame synthesis of mixed oxides, metal salts and even pure metals in the form of nanoparticles and films with closely controlled characteristics. In this way, high purity materials with novel metastable phases are made that are not accessible by conventional wet-phase and solid state processes. Here, flame processes are classified into vapour-fed and liquid-fed ones depending on the employed state of the metal precursor. Liquid-fed flame processes are distinguished for their flexibility in producing materials of various compositions and morphologies that result in unique product functionalities. Parameters controlling the characteristics of flame-made particles and films are summarized and selected classes of materials are reviewed focusing on catalysts, sensors, biomaterials (orthopaedic, dental or nutritional), electroceramics (fuel cells, batteries) and phosphors exhibiting superior performance over conventionally made ones. Just a few years ago it seemed impossible to make these materials in the gas phase. Finally, health effects of such particles are discussed while future challenges and opportunities for flame-made materials are highlighted.

Graphical abstract: Flame aerosol synthesis of smart nanostructured materials

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Article information

31 Jul 2007
12 Sep 2007
First published
25 Sep 2007

J. Mater. Chem., 2007,17, 4743-4756
Article type
Feature Article

Flame aerosol synthesis of smart nanostructured materials

R. Strobel and S. E. Pratsinis, J. Mater. Chem., 2007, 17, 4743
DOI: 10.1039/B711652G

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