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Issue 13, 2004
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Synthesis, structure, and phase relationship in lithium manganese oxide spinel

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Abstract

Phase relationships, structures, magnetic properties, and phase transitions in the lithium manganese oxide spinel were studied based on a wide variety of samples synthesized at temperatures over a range of 750 ≤ t ≤ 900 °C with Li/Mn ratios between 0.5 and 0.55 and various starting materials. The system was divided into three categories: oxygen deficient spinels, LiMn2O4  δ; lithium-substituted spinels, Li1 + xMn2  xO4  δ; and the stoichiometric spinel, LiMn2O4. Their structures were discussed based on the structure data determined by TOF neutron and synchrotron X-ray Rietveld analysis. The amount of oxygen vacancy was determined to be δ ≈ 0.14(3) in LiMn2O4  δ, for example, for the spinel synthesized at 900 °C, and the nearly stoichiometric composition was obtained at 750 °C followed by heating at 470 °C for several times from lithium hydroxide and manganese oxides as starting materials. The oxygen vacancy was dependent upon the synthesis conditions and starting materials. It decreased as the Li/Mn ratio varied from 0.5 to 0.55, and as the synthesis temperature decreased from 900 to 750 °C. Based on the synthesis and structure results, the phase relationship in the ternary diagram, Li–Mn–O, is discussed.

Graphical abstract: Synthesis, structure, and phase relationship in lithium manganese oxide spinel

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Article information


Submitted
17 Nov 2003
Accepted
13 Apr 2004
First published
20 May 2004

J. Mater. Chem., 2004,14, 1948-1958
Article type
Paper

Synthesis, structure, and phase relationship in lithium manganese oxide spinel

M. Yonemura, A. Yamada, H. Kobayashi, M. Tabuchi, T. Kamiyama, Y. Kawamoto and R. Kanno, J. Mater. Chem., 2004, 14, 1948
DOI: 10.1039/B314810F

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