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Issue 5, 2008
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Microwave-assisted cloud point extraction of Rh, Pd and Pt with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole as preconcentration procedure prior to ICP-MS analysis of pharmaceutical products

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Abstract

New approaches for acceleration of cloud point extraction of Rh, Pd and Pt by microwave and ultrasound irradiation have been investigated. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole and Triton X-100 were used as ligand and non-ionic surfactant, respectively. Microwave irradiation substantially increased the procedure efficiency. In contrast no significant effect was observed when a micellar solution was treated with ultrasound energy. The acceleration of complex formation reactions by reducing agents (KI and SnCl2) has also been studied. The use of SnCl2 was a prerequisite for quantitative extraction of Rh. Since the extraction kinetics of platinum depends on its oxidation state and presence of Pd, the addition of SnCl2 equalized the platinum extraction behavior. For the first time the whole cloud point procedure was successively accomplished in a microwave system. 10 min of irradiation were sufficient for gravimetrical phase separation and quantitative extraction of platinum group metals. As a result the procedure time was shortened by a factor of 9 in comparison to conventional hot plate cloud point extraction. The surfactant-rich phase was analyzed after dilution with 1 M HCl by continuous nebulization to ICP-MS. Quantitative recoveries and good plasma tolerance were reported. Detection limits of 1 ng.l−1 (Rh), 5 ng.l−1 (Pd), and 6 ng.l−1 (Pt) were achieved regarding a preconcentration factor of 8. The microwave-assisted cloud point extraction has been successfully applied for simultaneous determination of trace amounts of platinum group metals in pharmaceutical products (Tritace, Vivace, Laprilen and Enalapril).

Graphical abstract: Microwave-assisted cloud point extraction of Rh, Pd and Pt with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole as preconcentration procedure prior to ICP-MS analysis of pharmaceutical products

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Publication details

The article was received on 02 Oct 2007, accepted on 07 Feb 2008 and first published on 29 Feb 2008


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/B715133K
Citation: J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2008,23, 717-726

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    Microwave-assisted cloud point extraction of Rh, Pd and Pt with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole as preconcentration procedure prior to ICP-MS analysis of pharmaceutical products

    K. Simitchiev, V. Stefanova, V. Kmetov, G. Andreev, N. Kovachev and A. Canals, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2008, 23, 717
    DOI: 10.1039/B715133K

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