Graphene-based advanced nanoplatforms and biocomposites from environmentally friendly and biomimetic approaches
Because of their unique and outstanding physicochemical properties, such as large specific area, ultralow thickness, high mechanical stiffness, and high electrical and thermal conductivities, graphene and graphene-based nanomaterials (GNs), such as graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, graphene quantum dots, etc., have become “star” nanomaterials for use in biomedical areas over the past decade. However, significant drawbacks like potential cytotoxicity still greatly limit their wider applications. Attempting to eliminate toxicity and enhance biofunctionalities, abundant modification methods for fabricating GNs-based advanced nanoplatforms and biocomposites have been developed to alter their surface chemistry, especially through facile, environmentally friendly, biomimetic, as well as bioinspired methods. In this review, environmentally friendly approaches utilized for designing GNs-based advanced nanoplatforms and biocomposites that integrate the benefits of the prevention of waste production and the use of less hazardous reagents are summarized. Moreover, learning from natural systems, biomimetic routes to modify GNs with superior biological performances are also discussed. Furthermore, the biocompatibility and bioactivity at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels are briefly introduced, and the representative biomedical applications for GNs-based advanced nanoplatforms and biocomposites are summarized. This review may help readers in understanding the state-of-the-art advances, current challenges, and prospects of environmentally friendly and biomimetic approaches for the functionalization of graphene and its derivatives that may improve their biomedical applications and inspire several newer opportunities in diverse nanomedical and biomedical areas.