An N-heterocyclic carbene-functionalised covalent organic framework with atomically dispersed palladium for coupling reactions under mild conditions†
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a new class of crystalline porous materials that could function as excellent scaffolds for heterogeneous catalysts. Herein, we report a functionalised COF (COF-NHC) using N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) as a monomer building block via a facile ionothermal strategy. The simple and easily prepared imine-linked COF-NHC possessed two coordination sites (NHC and amine), which could fix the active component (Pd) tightly in COF, leading to atomically dispersed Pd in a heterogeneous catalyst. The as-prepared Pd@COF-NHC showed high stability in the Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reaction of arylboronic acids and aryl halides in aqueous media at room temperature, and could be easily recycled and reused multiple times without the loss of catalytic activity. Moreover, C–C coupling reactions could be accomplished using triarylbismuth reagents in ethanol aqueous solutions with high yields.