Recent advances on the utilization of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and related heterogeneous catalysts in a lignocellulosic-feedstock biorefinery scheme
Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and derived materials have been widely used as heterogeneous catalysts for different types of reactions either in gas or in liquid phase. Among these processes, the valorization/upgrading of lignocellulosic biomass and derived molecules have attracted enormous attention because it constitutes a pivotal axis in the transition from an economic model based on fossil resources to one based on renewable biomass resources with preference for biomass waste streams. Proof of this is the increasing amount of literature reports regarding the rational design and implementation of LDHs and related materials in catalytic processes such as: depolymerization, hydrogenation, selective oxidations, and C–C coupling reactions, among others, where biomass-derived compounds are used. The major aim of this contribution is to situate the most recent advances on the implementation of these types of catalysts into a lignocellulosic-feedstock biorefinery scheme, highlighting the versatility of LDHs and derived materials as multifunctional, tunable, cheap and easy to produce heterogeneous catalysts.