Jump to main content
Jump to site search
PLANNED MAINTENANCE Close the message box

Scheduled maintenance work on Wednesday 22nd May 2019 from 11:00 AM to 1:00 PM (GMT).

During this time our website performance may be temporarily affected. We apologise for any inconvenience this might cause and thank you for your patience.

Issue 15, 2017
Previous Article Next Article

Heterogeneous Diels–Alder catalysis for biomass-derived aromatic compounds

Author affiliations


In this tutorial review, we provide an overview of heterogeneous Diels–Alder catalysis for the production of lignocellulosic biomass-derived aromatic compounds. Diels–Alder reactions afford an extremely selective and efficient route for carbon–carbon cycloadditions to produce intermediates that can readily undergo subsequent dehydration or dehydrogenation reactions for aromatization. As a result, catalysis of Diels–Alder reactions with biomass-derived dienes and dienophiles has seen a growth of interest in recent years; however, significant opportunities remain to (i) tailor heterogeneous catalyst materials for tandem Diels–Alder and aromatization reactions, and (ii) utilize biomass-derived dienes and dienophiles to access both conventional and novel aromatic monomers. As such, this review discusses the mechanistic aspects of Diels–Alder reactions from both an experimental and computational perspective, as well as the synergy of Brønsted–Lewis acid catalysts to facilitate tandem Diels–Alder and aromatization reactions. Heterogeneous catalyst design strategies for Diels–Alder reactions are reviewed for two exemplary solid acid catalysts, zeolites and polyoxometalates, and recent efforts for targeting direct replacement aromatic monomers from biomass are summarized. Lastly, we point out important research directions for progressing Diels–Alder catalysis to target novel, aromatic monomers with chemical functionality that enables new properties compared to monomers that are readily accessible from petroleum.

Graphical abstract: Heterogeneous Diels–Alder catalysis for biomass-derived aromatic compounds

Back to tab navigation

Publication details

The article was received on 31 Mar 2017, accepted on 17 May 2017 and first published on 17 May 2017

Article type: Tutorial Review
DOI: 10.1039/C7GC00992E
Green Chem., 2017,19, 3468-3492

  •   Request permissions

    Heterogeneous Diels–Alder catalysis for biomass-derived aromatic compounds

    A. E. Settle, L. Berstis, N. A. Rorrer, Y. Roman-Leshkóv, G. T. Beckham, R. M. Richards and D. R. Vardon, Green Chem., 2017, 19, 3468
    DOI: 10.1039/C7GC00992E

Search articles by author