Sestrin2 is involved in the Nrf2-regulated antioxidative signaling pathway in luteolin-induced prevention of the diabetic rat heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury
Luteolin attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in diabetes through activating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-related antioxidative response. Though sestrin2, a highly conserved stress-inducible protein, is regarded as a modulator of Nrf2 and reduces I/R injury, the effect of sestrin2 on luteolin-induced prevention of the diabetic heart from I/R injury remains unclear. We hypothesized that luteolin could relieve myocardial I/R injury in diabetes by activating the sestrin2-modulated Nrf2 antioxidative response. Diabetes was induced in rats using a single dose of streptozotocin (65 mg kg−1, i.p.) for 6 weeks, and then luteolin (100 mg kg−1 d−1, i.g.), Nrf2 inhibitor brusatol, or sestrin2 blocker leucine was administered for 2 consecutive weeks. After that, the hearts were isolated and exposed to global I/R (30 min/120 min). Luteolin markedly improved cardiac function, myocardial viability and expressions of Nrf2-regulated antioxidative genes, and reduced lactate dehydrogenase release, malondialdehyde, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the diabetic I/R hearts. Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition and membrane potential disruption were markedly inhibited in luteolin-treated diabetic ventricular myocytes. All these effects of luteolin were significantly reversed by Nrf2 inhibitor brusatol or sestrin2 inhibitor leucine. Luteolin-induced diminished Keap1 and augmented nuclear translocation and ARE binding activity of Nrf2 were hampered by leucine in the diabetic I/R heart. In addition, luteolin-induced augmented transcription of sestrin2 was markedly blocked by brusatol in the diabetic I/R heart. These data suggest that sestrin2 and Nrf2 positively interact to promote antioxidative actions and attenuate mitochondrial damage, by which luteolin relieves diabetic myocardial I/R injury.