Potential effects of nutrition-based weight loss therapies in reversing obesity-related breast cancer epigenetic marks
Obesity is a modifiable risk factor of breast cancer and epigenetic marks were proposed as a relevant mechanistic link. These mechanisms can be remodelled by modifying lifestyle factors and this fact could be useful in the treatment of obesity-related breast cancer. This review aimed to reveal the current evidence on the effects of differences in body composition and lifestyle factors on the risk, treatment, and survival of breast cancer with a focus on the effects of weight loss therapies based on different nutrients, bioactive compounds, and Mediterranean and ketogenic diets to counteract obesity-related breast cancer epigenetic marks. This review was framed on the most relevant and recently published articles and abstracts selected in PubMed using key words related to epigenetics, lifestyle, dietary habits, nutrients, bioactive compounds, ketone bodies, and weight loss treatments in obesity and breast cancer. Several studies have demonstrated that lifestyle interventions, including dietary modifications towards a healthy diet pattern, are effective therapies to prevent the onset of breast cancer and to improve the survival after treatment. These therapies reduce the main factors associated with obesity that are links between adiposity and cancer, including oxidative stress, inflammation and epigenetic mechanisms. However, although sufficient evidence exists regarding the effects of nutrients, dietary patterns, and weight loss therapies to prevent breast cancer or to improve survival, the effects of these strategies on the oncological treatment response were less studied. This review summarises the current scientific evidence regarding these nutritional strategies as adjuvant therapies in the management of obesity-related breast cancer by remodelling epigenetic marks related to carcinogenesis.