Impact of diets rich in olive oil, palm oil or lard on myokine expression in rats†
It has recently emerged that myokines may be an important skeletal muscle adaptive response to obesogenic diets in sedentary subjects (who do not exercise). This study aimed to assess the influence of various high fat (HF) diets rich in either crude palm oil (cPO), refined palm oil (rPO), olive oil (OO) or lard on the modulation of myokine gene expression in the gastrocnemius. Five groups of 8 rats were each fed HF or control diet for 12 weeks. Systemic parameters concerning glucose, insulin, inflammation, cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and transaminases were assessed by routine methods or ELISA. Akt and ACC phosphorylation were analyzed by WB in the soleus. Mitochondrial density, inflammation, and the gene expression of 17 myokines and the apelin receptor (Apj) were assessed by qPCR in the gastrocnemius. We found that HF diet-fed rats were insulin resistant and Akt phosphorylation decreased in the soleus muscle, but without any change in Glut4 gene expression. Systemic (IL-6) and muscle inflammation (NFκB and IκB) were not affected by the HF diets as well as TBARS, and ASAT level was enhanced with OO diet. Soleus pACC phosphorylation and gastrocnemius mitochondrial density were not significantly altered. The gene expression of some myokines was respectively increased (myostatin and Il-15) and decreased (Fndc5 and apelin) with the HF diets, whatever the type of fat used. The gene expression of two myokines with anti-inflammatory properties, Il-10 and myonectin, was dependent on the type of fat used and was most increased respectively with cPO or both rPO and OO diets. In conclusion, high-fat diets can differentially modulate the expression of some myokines, either in a dependent manner or independently of their composition.