Identification of a new benzophenone from Psidium guajava L. leaves and its antineoplastic effects on human colon cancer cells†
Psidium guajava L. leaves have a long history of being consumed as herbal teas in many countries. The aim of this study was to identify compounds with anticancer potentials from Psidium guajava L. leaves. Utilizing various extraction and chromatographical techniques, we have isolated one new (2) and two known compounds (1, 3). Structural analyses by the spectroscopic methods of TOF-MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HSQC, and HMBC identified these three compounds as guavinoside E (1), 3,5-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethyl-1-O-(6′-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-benzophenone (2), and guavinoside B (3). Cell viability assays showed that compounds 2 and 3 inhibited the growth of HCT116 human colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner, where compound 2 was more potent than compound 3. Based on flow cytometry analysis, compound 2 showed stronger activity in inducing cellular apoptosis in cancer cells than compound 3. Furthermore, compounds 2 and 3 modulated expression levels of key proteins involved in cell proliferation and apoptotic signaling. Specifically, compound 2 increased the levels of p53, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK, and cleaved caspases 8 and 9, and compound 3 increased the levels of p53 and cleaved caspase 8. Overall, this study provided identities of three bioactive compounds from P. guajava L. leaves and their anti-cancer effects against human colon cancer cells, which could facilitate the utilization of these compounds and P. guajava L. leaves as potential chemoprevention agents against colon carcinogenesis.