The protective role of hawthorn fruit extract against high salt-induced hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive rats: impact on oxidative stress and metabolic patterns†
In the present study, the renal-protective effect of hawthorn fruit extract (HW) on high-salt hypertension and its effect on metabolic patterns are determined. High salt causes hypertension in Dahl salt sensitive (SS) rats, while HW can effectively attenuate high-salt induced hypertension, and, various antihypertensive ingredients of HW have also been successfully identified using GC/MS. Of note, the biochemical assay indicates that HW significantly increases the concentration of nitric oxide (NO) and decreases the concentration of H2O2 and malonaldehyde. Especially, HW increases the activities of NO synthase and catalase in the renal medulla. Simultaneously, the renal cortex and medulla, harvested from SS rats, are used to perform the metabolomics analysis, and then, 11 and 8 differential metabolites are identified in the renal medulla and cortex with the HW gavage, respectively. All differential metabolites are then used to perform the pathway enrichment analysis. The results show that many metabolic pathways are enriched in both the renal medulla and cortex, especially those in the medulla including 23 enriched pathways. Therefore, it provides evidence that HW confers an antioxidant effect on high-salt induced hypertension and dramatically alters the metabolic patterns of SS rats, and the antihypertensive ingredients of HW also further indicate that it may be used as a nutritional supplemental therapeutic drug to protect against high-salt induced hypertension in the renal medulla.