Effect of the food form and structure on lipid digestion and postprandial lipaemic response
As the food matrix is a determinant of the rate of fat digestion and absorption, it is important for the modulation of postprandial triglyceridaemia. High postprandial triglyceride levels are associated with an increase in inflammation, oxidative stress, an imbalance in the lipoprotein profile and an increase in the risk of developing chronic diseases. This study was designed to assess the in vitro digestion patterns and the postprandial lipaemic responses to test foods with the same nutrient composition but differing in the form and structure. A liquid, a semi-solid and a solid test food with the same nutrient and energy composition were designed. The digestion profiles of the three foods were assessed using a dynamic in vitro model. The foods were also consumed by healthy young adults who donated blood samples after an overnight fast and again 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 h after consuming each of the test foods and who were also assessed for appetite sensations. The solid food showed phase separation during gastric digestion and a lower release of fatty acids during intestinal digestion than the liquid and semi-solid foods. During the postprandial feeding experiments, the solid food caused a lower increase in serum triglycerides than the liquid food and produced higher fullness and satisfaction. In conclusion, the food form and structure modulated fat release, postprandial triglyceridaemia and appetite sensations independent of the nutrient and energy content. Thus, manipulation of the food structure and form may be used in designing strategies for improving metabolic markers and satiety.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Food & Function Recent HOT articles