Dietary fish oil ameliorates adipose tissue dysfunction in insulin-resistant rats fed a sucrose-rich diet improving oxidative stress, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and uncoupling protein 2
This work aims to assess the possible beneficial effects of dietary fish oil (FO) on the pre-existing adipose tissue dysfunction through the improvement or reversion of the mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in dyslipemic insulin-resistant rats. Wistar rats were fed a sucrose rich diet (SRD) for 6 months. After that half of the animals continued with the SRD until month 8 while in the other half corn oil was replaced by FO for 2 months (SRD + FO). A reference group consumed a control diet all the time. In an epididymal fat pad, we analyzed antioxidant and oxidant enzyme activities, ROS content, glutathione redox state, the protein level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and the expression and protein levels of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) as well as oxidative stress biomarkers and TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels. Besides these, insulin sensitivity and the composition of fatty acid phospholipids of adipose tissue were measured. Compared with the SRD the SRD + FO fed group showed a decrease of fat pad weight and the antioxidant and oxidant enzyme activities and ROS content returned to control values along with normal plasma TNF-α and IL-6 levels. FO normalized both the decrease of PPARγ protein and the increase of protein and expression of UCP2. Furthermore, FO increased the n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio in the adipose tissue phospholipids and normalized dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Finally, these findings reinforce the view that dietary FO may exert a beneficial effect in ameliorating the dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in this animal model.