Relating the effects of protein type and content in increased-protein cheese pies to consumers’ perception of satiating capacity
Since proteins have been shown to have the highest satiation-inducing effects of all the macronutrients, increasing the protein level is one of the main strategies for designing foods with enhanced satiating capacity. However, few studies analyze the effect that protein addition has on the texture and flavor characteristics of the target food item to relate it to the expected satiating capacity it elicits. The present work studied cheese pies with three levels of soy and whey proteins. Since the protein level altered the rheological behavior of the batters before baking and the texture of the baked pies, the feasibility of adding several protein levels for obtaining a range of final products was investigated. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire containing 32 sensory and non-sensory characteristics of the samples was given to consumers (n = 131) who also scored the perceived samples’ satiating capacity. The results showed that the type and content of protein contributed distinctive sensory characteristics to the samples that could be related to their satiating capacity perception. Harder and drier samples (high protein levels) were perceived as more satiating with less perceptible sweet and milky cheese pie characteristic flavors. Soy contributed an off-flavour. These results will contribute to a better understanding of the interrelation of all these factors, aiding the development of highly palatable solid foods with enhanced satiating capacities.