The beneficial effect of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf extracts in adults with prediabetes: a randomized placebo controlled trial
The present study investigated the effects of soybean leaf extracts (SLEs) on blood glucose, insulin resistance, body fat and dyslipidemia in prediabetes subjects, and compared them with the effects of banaba extracts (BE) which is known to ameliorate diabetes in several animals and clinical studies. Overweight subjects with mild hyperglycemia (fasting blood glucose level of 100–125 mg dL−1) were randomly assigned to three groups and administered four capsules containing starch (2 g per day, Placebo), BE (300 mg per day, 0.3% corosolic acid) or SLE (2 g per day) during regular meals for 12 weeks. The SLE as well as BE significantly decreased the baseline-adjusted final blood glucose, HbA1c, HOMA-IR and transaminase levels compared to the placebo group. The body weight, BMI and WHR were not different between the groups, but the baseline-adjusted final body fat content and waist circumference were lower in the BE and SLE groups than in the placebo group. Furthermore, the baseline-adjusted final plasma triglyceride concentration was lower in the BE and SLE groups compared to the placebo group. There were no significant differences in plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations between the groups. However, the SLE, but not the BE, significantly increased the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration and the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol after 12 weeks of supplementation compared to the placebo group, while the atherogenic index was decreased. Taken together, these data suggest that SLE may play an important role in improving blood glucose, insulin resistance, adiposity, and dyslipidemia in prediabetes subjects consuming their habitual diet, similar to or better than BE.