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Issue 2, 2014
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The anti-inflammatory effect of a pomegranate husk extract on inflamed adipocytes and macrophages cultivated independently, but not on the inflammatory vicious cycle between adipocytes and macrophages

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Abstract

Obese adipose tissues contain a higher proportion of inflamed macrophages than the normal adipose tissue. Adipocytes and macrophages are known to secrete pro-inflammatory markers that establish the systemic inflammation leading to metabolic complications. CCL-2 secreted by hypertrophied adipocytes attracts and activates macrophages in the adipose tissue. These cells, in turn, secrete TNFα and other pro-inflammatory molecules. The pomegranate husk extract and its phenolic constituents, punicalagin and ellagic acid, have exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, we used an in vitro coculture system of 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds on the vicious cycle between both cell types. The pomegranate husk extract presented an anti-inflammatory effect on the inflamed cells cultivated independently, as suggested by a decrease of (i) CCL-2 secretion by both cell types, (ii) adipocyte IL-6 expression and secretion, and (iii) macrophage TNFα secretion. Nevertheless and surprisingly, no anti-inflammatory effect was observed in coculture. Punicalagin, at the same concentration as that found in the pomegranate extract, had a more potent effect than the extract and in coculture; it reduced significantly the IL-6 secretion. Ellagic acid decreased TNFα and CCL-2 macrophage secretion, CCL-2 adipocyte secretion and, in coculture, it reduced IL-6 secretion and expression by adipocytes. These results indicate that the pomegranate husk extract has an anti-inflammatory action on adipocytes and macrophages but seems to be not able to reduce the inflammatory vicious cycle between both cells. Ellagitannin and punicalagin showed a better effect on inflammation suggesting that PHE will be a good candidate for more investigations.

Graphical abstract: The anti-inflammatory effect of a pomegranate husk extract on inflamed adipocytes and macrophages cultivated independently, but not on the inflammatory vicious cycle between adipocytes and macrophages

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Publication details

The article was received on 24 Sep 2013, accepted on 15 Oct 2013 and first published on 13 Nov 2013


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C3FO60443H
Citation: Food Funct., 2014,5, 310-318

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    The anti-inflammatory effect of a pomegranate husk extract on inflamed adipocytes and macrophages cultivated independently, but not on the inflammatory vicious cycle between adipocytes and macrophages

    J. Winand and Y. Schneider, Food Funct., 2014, 5, 310
    DOI: 10.1039/C3FO60443H

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