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Volume 131, 2006
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Long-range interfacial electron transfer of metalloproteins based on molecular wiring assemblies

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We address some physical features associated with long-range interfacial electron transfer (ET) of metalloproteins in both electrochemical and electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ECSTM) configurations, which offer a brief foundation for understanding of the ET mechanisms. These features are illustrated experimentally by new developments of two systems with the blue copper protein azurin and enzyme nitrite reductase as model metalloproteins. Azurin and nitrite reductase were assembled on Au(111) surfaces by molecular wiring to establish effective electronic coupling between the redox centers in the proteins and the electrode surface for ET and biological electrocatalysis. With such assemblies, interfacial ET proceeds through chemically defined and well oriented sites and parallels biological ET. In the case of azurin, the ET properties can be characterized comprehensively and even down to the single-molecule level with direct observation of redox-gated electron tunnelling resonance. Molecular wiring using a π-conjugated thiol is suitable for assembling monolayers of the enzyme with catalytic activity well-retained. The catalytic mechanism involves multiple-ET steps including both intramolecular and interfacial processes. Interestingly, ET appears to exhibit a substrate-gated pattern observed preliminarily in both voltammetry and ECSTM.

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Article information

04 May 2005
16 May 2005
First published
28 Sep 2005

Faraday Discuss., 2006,131, 181-195
Article type

Long-range interfacial electron transfer of metalloproteins based on molecular wiring assemblies

Q. Chi, J. Zhang, P. S. Jensen, H. E. M. Christensen and J. Ulstrup, Faraday Discuss., 2006, 131, 181
DOI: 10.1039/B506136A

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