Hexabromocyclododecane and tetrabromobisphenol A in tree bark from different functional areas of Shanghai, China: levels and spatial distributions
The concentrations and spatial distributions of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were measured in tree bark from different functional areas of Shanghai. ΣHBCDD (sum of α-, β-, and γ-HBCDD) concentrations ranged from 1.2 × 102 to 6.6 × 103 ng g−1 lw (median 5.7 × 102 ng g−1 lw) and TBBPA concentrations ranged from 48 to 7.2 × 104 ng g−1 lw (median 2.8 × 102 ng g−1 lw). The concentrations of ΣHBCDD and TBBPA all followed the order of industrial areas > commercial areas > residential areas. The mean percentage of α-HBCDD in bark samples (44%) from Shanghai was higher than that in technical HBCDD products, but comparable with that in air. The concentrations of TBBPA and individual HBCDD diastereoisomers between industrial areas and commercial areas were correlated. Based on the concentrations of HBCDD in the bark, the corresponding atmospheric HBCDD concentrations were estimated. Compared with the published data for HBCDD in urban air, the estimated atmospheric HBCDD concentrations in Shanghai had a relatively high level, and more attention should be paid to the pollution status of HBCDD in Shanghai.