Effects of pretreatment on the denaturation and fragmentation of genomic DNA for DNA hybridization
DNA hybridization is an important step for a number of bioassays such as fluorescence in situ hybridization, microarrays, as well as the NanoGene assay. Denaturation and fragmentation of genomic DNA are two critical pretreatments for DNA hybridization. However, no thorough and systematic characterization on denaturation and fragmentation has been carried out for the NanoGene assay so far. In this study, we investigated the denaturation and fragmentation of the bacterial gDNA with physical treatments (i.e., heating and sonication) and chemical treatments (i.e., dimethyl sulfoxide). First of all, a simple approach for indicating the denaturation fraction was developed based on the absorbance difference (i.e., hyperchromic effect) between the double-stranded DNA and single-stranded DNA fragments. Then the denaturation capabilities of the treatments to the gDNA were elucidated, followed by the examination of the possible renaturation over time. The fragmentation of the gDNA by each treatment was also investigated. Based on denaturation efficiency, minimum renaturation tendency, and fragmentation, the sonication method was found to be the best among the six methods. We further demonstrated that the sonication method produced the best result among the treatments examined for the DNA hybridization in the NanoGene assay.