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Issue 9, 2013
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Combining multivariate statistics and analysis of variance to redesign a water quality monitoring network

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Abstract

The objective of this paper was to demonstrate how multivariate statistics combined with the analysis of variance could support decision-making during the process of redesigning a water quality monitoring network with highly heterogeneous datasets in terms of time and space. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) were selected to optimise the selection of water quality parameters to be monitored as well as the number and location of monitoring stations. Sampling frequency was specifically investigated through the analysis of variance. The data used were obtained between 2007 and 2010 at the Long-term Environmental Research Monitoring and Testing System (OPE) located in the north-eastern part of France in relation with a geological disposal of radioactive waste project. PCA results showed that no substantial reduction among the parameters was possible as strong correlation only exists between electrical conductivity, calcium or bicarbonates. HCA results were geospatially represented for each field campaign and compared to one another in terms of similarities and differences allowing us to group the monitoring stations into 12 categories. This approach enabled us to take into account not only the spatial variability of water quality but also its temporal variability. Finally, the analysis of variances showed that three very different behaviours occurred: parameters with high temporal variability and low spatial variability (e.g. suspended matter), parameters with high spatial variability and average temporal variability (e.g. calcium) and finally parameters with both high temporal and spatial variability (e.g. nitrate).

Graphical abstract: Combining multivariate statistics and analysis of variance to redesign a water quality monitoring network

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Publication details

The article was received on 29 Mar 2013, accepted on 15 Jul 2013 and first published on 05 Aug 2013


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00168G
Citation: Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2013,15, 1692-1705

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    Combining multivariate statistics and analysis of variance to redesign a water quality monitoring network

    N. Guigues, M. Desenfant and E. Hance, Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2013, 15, 1692
    DOI: 10.1039/C3EM00168G

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