Nano–bio interfacial interactions that can likely regulate the potential toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) toward aquatic organisms are receiving increasing research interest worldwide and warrant more investigation. This review presents an overview of already-known nano–bio interactions and some speculations on the interfaces between NPs and aquatic organisms, in order to gain a new insight into the biological effects of NPs in the aquatic environment. The fundamental interfaces between NPs and organism cells and the main biophysicochemical interactions that occur at the nano–bio interfaces are described. The interfacial interactions, focused on adsorption and internalization, during the contact of NPs with microorganisms, hydrophytes, invertebrates and fish were reviewed. The effects of NP properties and suspending states as well as environmental conditions including pH, ionic strength, natural organic matter and other factors on the interfacial interactions were elucidated. Furthermore, the analytical methods employed in the interfacial interaction investigations were also briefly introduced. Future research directions of nano–bio interactions were prospected.
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