Jump to main content
Jump to site search
SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE Close the message box

Maintenance work is planned for Monday 16 August 2021 from 07:00 to 23:59 (BST).

Website performance may be temporarily affected and you may not be able to access some PDFs or images. If this does happen, refreshing your web browser should resolve the issue. We apologise for any inconvenience this might cause and thank you for your patience.


Issue 10, 2012

Apparatus for in situ monitoring of copper in coastal waters

Author affiliations

Abstract

Apparatus is designed and tested to determine metals in situ in seawater. Voltammetry with a vibrating gold microwire electrode (VGME) is combined with a battery powered potentiostat and a processor board and is tested for in situ monitoring of copper (Cu) in coastal waters. The VGME was combined with solid state reference and counter electrodes to make a single vibrating probe which was rated up to a depth of 40 m. The measuring mode for Cu was square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry whilst dissolved oxygen (DO) was monitored by a linear sweep scan in a negative potential direction. The working electrode was reactivated between measurements using a suitable potential sequence. The novelties of this work are the field-testing of apparatus incorporating a VGME for copper monitoring, which eliminates the need for pumping and reagents, but has sufficient sensitivity for low ambient levels of copper, and the use of a novel potential sequence to stabilise the response over a long time period. The apparatus has a measuring time of about 6 weeks and a measuring frequency of 12 h−1. Measurement is reagent-free and power use is low as no pump is required. Experiments are carried out to test the stability of response of the system at various temperatures and its robustness with respect to long-term copper monitoring. Preliminary data were obtained during autonomous deployment over several weeks on a buoy in the Irish Sea. Vertical movement of the buoy caused individual measurements to have a variability of about 15%. It was found that longer term variability of the electrode could be minimised by normalisation of the Cu response over that of DO as the response was related to diffusion through the electrode surface which was similarly affected. The detected fraction of Cu (labile Cu) amounted to 1.5–4 nM during different deployments at a total Cu concentration of ∼10 nM. The same ratio was found by voltammetry in samples taken to the laboratory. The new apparatus has demonstrated that metals in coastal waters can be monitored at trace level, much facilitating the monitoring of outfalls and local water contamination. Because of its sensitivity the apparatus would be of use in estuarine as well as coastal waters, with the aim of monitoring intermittent variability in the copper concentration.

Graphical abstract: Apparatus for in situ monitoring of copper in coastal waters

Article information


Submitted
11 Jun 2012
Accepted
14 Aug 2012
First published
16 Aug 2012

J. Environ. Monit., 2012,14, 2793-2802
Article type
Paper

Apparatus for in situ monitoring of copper in coastal waters

C. S. Chapman, R. D. Cooke, P. Salaün and C. M. G. van den Berg, J. Environ. Monit., 2012, 14, 2793 DOI: 10.1039/C2EM30460K

To request permission to reproduce material from this article, please go to the Copyright Clearance Center request page.

If you are an author contributing to an RSC publication, you do not need to request permission provided correct acknowledgement is given.

If you are the author of this article, you do not need to request permission to reproduce figures and diagrams provided correct acknowledgement is given. If you want to reproduce the whole article in a third-party publication (excluding your thesis/dissertation for which permission is not required) please go to the Copyright Clearance Center request page.

Read more about how to correctly acknowledge RSC content.


Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements