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Issue 3, 2012
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Arsenic speciation in freshwater snails and its life cycle variation

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Terrestrial snails are consumed by humans occasionally and they are an important food source for many creatures including fish and birds. Little is known about arsenic speciation in these gastropods, let alone life cycle variations. Here we report on the arsenic speciation in freshwater snails from Pender Island and Vancouver Island, B.C., Canada, which was determined on methanol/water extracts (43–59% extraction efficiency) by using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and HPLC–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The tetramethylarsonium ion, oxo-arsenosugars and thio-arsenosugars are the main arsenic species encountered. Arsenobetaine, which is commonly found in the marine environment, is minor. Live bearing snails Viviparidae sp. from Pender Island were maintained in aquaria and the arsenic speciation in the unborn, newly born, and adult animals was monitored. Oxo-arsenosugars predominate in the adults, whereas thio-arsenosugars seem to predominate in juveniles, suggesting that these arsenicals are snail metabolites.

Graphical abstract: Arsenic speciation in freshwater snails and its life cycle variation

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Publication details

The article was received on 19 Sep 2011, accepted on 21 Nov 2011 and first published on 22 Dec 2011

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C2EM10764C
Citation: J. Environ. Monit., 2012,14, 743-751

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    Arsenic speciation in freshwater snails and its life cycle variation

    V. W.-M. Lai, K. Kanaki, S. A. Pergantis, W. R. Cullen and K. J. Reimer, J. Environ. Monit., 2012, 14, 743
    DOI: 10.1039/C2EM10764C

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