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Issue 11, 2011
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Occurrence, finger printing and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Chenab River, Pakistan

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Abstract

Seventeen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in surface waters (including particulate phase) from the Chenab River, Pakistan and ranged from 289–994 and 437–1290 ng l−1 in summer and winter (2007–09), respectively. Concentrations for different ring-number PAHs followed the trend: 3-rings > 2-rings > 4-rings > 5-rings > 6-rings. The possible sources of PAHs are identified by calculating the indicative ratios; appropriating petrogenic sources of PAHs in urban and sub-urban regions with pyrogenic sources in agricultural region. Factor analysis based on principal component analysis identified the origins of PAHs from industrial activities, coal and trash burning in agricultural areas and municipal waste disposal from surrounding urban and sub-urban areas via open drains into the riverine ecosystem. Water quality guidelines and toxic equivalent factors highlighted the potential risk of low molecular weight PAHs to the aquatic life of the Chenab River. The flux estimated for PAHs contaminants from the Chenab River to the Indus River was >50 tons/year.

Graphical abstract: Occurrence, finger printing and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Chenab River, Pakistan

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Publication details

The article was received on 23 May 2011, accepted on 26 Aug 2011 and first published on 17 Oct 2011


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C1EM10421G
Citation: J. Environ. Monit., 2011,13, 3207-3215

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    Occurrence, finger printing and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Chenab River, Pakistan

    S. Farooq, S. Ali-Musstjab-Akber-Shah Eqani, R. N. Malik, A. Katsoyiannis, G. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Li, L. Xiang, K. C. Jones and Z. K. Shinwari, J. Environ. Monit., 2011, 13, 3207
    DOI: 10.1039/C1EM10421G

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