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Issue 6, 2005
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Adeninenucleotides in snail muscles as one of biomarkers of fluoride toxicity

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The aim of this work was to determine the extent of bioaccumulation of fluorides in tissues of Helix aspersa maxima. The toxicity of fluorides administered orally on the energy balance of the snail’s foot was investigated based on measurements of concentrations of adenine nucleotides and their metabolism degradation products. Quantitation of fluoride levels was done in soft tissues (foot, hepatopancreas) and shells of mature snails. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of purine compounds was performed in slices of foot from mature snails. Fluoride concentrations in pulverized shells were measured using an ion-selective electrode. Gas chromatography was used to determine fluoride concentrations in soft tissues (hepatopancreas and foot). Purines were measured in foot muscle slices with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fluoride levels in soft tissues of the snail cannot serve as an indicator for biomonitoring purposes as no significant accumulation was observed during exposure to maximum allowable concentrations of fluoride in drinking water. Contrary to this, levels of fluoride in the shell rose significantly with this concentration of fluoride in drinking water. The effect of fluorides on energy metabolism of foot muscle was evidenced by elevated AMP levels, increased adenine nucleotide pool and reduced conversion of ADP to ATP. Exposure to rising F concentrations was accompanied by decreasing values of the adenylate energy charge AEC. Determination of AMP or AEC in foot muscle of exposed snails seems to be a useful indicator of fluoride effects on metabolic activity.

Graphical abstract: Adenine nucleotides in snail muscles as one of biomarkers of fluoride toxicity

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Article information

12 Oct 2004
04 Mar 2005
First published
16 May 2005

J. Environ. Monit., 2005,7, 631-634
Article type

Adenine nucleotides in snail muscles as one of biomarkers of fluoride toxicity

M. Rac, K. Safranow, K. Jakubowska, D. Chlubek and Z. Machoy, J. Environ. Monit., 2005, 7, 631
DOI: 10.1039/B415833B

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