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Issue 12, 2004
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Development and validation of methods for environmental monitoring of cyclophosphamide in workplaces

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Methods to monitor contamination of workplaces with antineoplastic drugs have been developed and validated. Cyclophosphamide (CP) was used as a model compound as it is one of the most commonly used antineoplastic drugs. A wipe sampling method to detect contamination with CP at surfaces was developed. A personal air sampling method to sample gas and vapour on solid sorbent tubes and particles with filters was also developed. Wipe and filter samples were extracted and sorbent samples were eluted, all with ethyl acetate. The samples were analysed with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. 2H6-labelled cyclophosphamide was used as an internal standard. The between-day precision was 2–5% for wipe samples, 4–6% for sorbent samples and 3–8% for filter samples. The limit of detection was 0.02 ng CP per sample for the wipe and filter methods and 0.03 ng CP per sample for the solid sorbent method. Wipe sampling on surfaces made of different materials resulted in mean recoveries between 78–106%. The desorption recovery was between 97–102% for the wipe samples, 97% for the sorbent samples and 101% for the filter samples. Samples were stable for up to 2 months at 5 °C and −20 °C and for about 2 d at room temperature. The developed methods were applied to the measurement of contamination with CP in a hospital pharmacy. Trace amounts of CP, 1.3 and 1.4 ng, were detected on surfaces in the pharmacy.

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Publication details

The article was received on 24 Jun 2004, accepted on 22 Sep 2004 and first published on 02 Nov 2004

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/B409277E
Citation: J. Environ. Monit., 2004,6, 979-984
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    Development and validation of methods for environmental monitoring of cyclophosphamide in workplaces

    M. Hedmer, B. A. G. Jönsson and O. Nygren, J. Environ. Monit., 2004, 6, 979
    DOI: 10.1039/B409277E

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