Temporal-spatial-energy resolved advance multidimensional techniques to probe photovoltaic materials from atomistic viewpoint for next-generation energy solutions
Solar cell technologies have attracted great attention considering their potential to meet the global energy demand in a sustainable fashion. There have been extensive research efforts to increase the efficiency of conventional and newly developed photovoltaic (PV) materials, while looking for new candidates to maximize the solar conversion efficiency. In this direction, advanced characterization tools capable of analysing material properties multi-dimensionally are continuously being developed, enabling researchers to fundamentally understand various aspects of material properties. This has equipped researchers with various tools to simultaneously engineer the structural, morphological, electrical, chemical and optical properties of materials to improve the performance of devices. Herein, we present the recent advances in the development of multidimensional characterization tools capable of probing material properties with high spatial, energy and temporal resolution simultaneously. Numerous advantages associated with mapping material properties under in situ/operando conditions to unveil various aspects of material properties in parallel are disclosed. In addition, the integration of various characterization tools to visualize the evolution of carrier dynamics under the influence of various external stimuli is discussed in detail. Together with discussing the advantages of multidimensional mapping tools over conventional tools, various outlooks for realizing next-generation characterization tools are provided to facilitate the commercialization and development of next-generation solar cell modules.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2021 Energy and Environmental Science Review Articles