This article is a review of the current knowledge of the chemical physics of carbon dioxide (CO2) conversion to fuels using light energy and water (CO2 photoreduction) on titania (TiO2)-based catalysts and Ti-species in porous materials. Fairly comprehensive literature reviews of CO2 photoreduction are available already. However, this article is focused on CO2 photoreduction on Ti-based catalysts, and incorporates fundamental aspects of CO2 photoreduction, knowledge from surface science studies of TiO2 and the surface chemistry of CO2. Firstly, the current state of development of this field is briefly reviewed, followed by a description of and insights from surface state and surface site approaches. Using examples such as metal-doping of TiO2, dye-sensitization, oxygen vacancies in TiO2 and isolated-Ti centers in microporous/mesoporous materials, the utility of these approaches to understand photoinduced reactions involved in CO2activation is examined. Finally, challenges and prospects for further development of this field are presented. Enhanced understanding of the CO2 : TiO2 system, with a combination of computational and experimental studies is required to develop catalysts exhibiting higher activity towards CO2 photoreduction.
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