Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of dihydro-2-quinolone platinum(iv) hybrids as antitumor agents displaying mitochondria injury and DNA damage mechanism†
The design of novel platinum(IV) complexes with mitochondria injury competence, besides the DNA damage mechanism, is a promising way to develop new platinum drugs. Herein, dihydro-2-quinolone (DHQLO) as a mitocan was incorporated into the platinum(IV) system for the first time to prepare a new series of DHQLO platinum(IV) compounds. Complex 1b could effectively inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. It accumulated at higher levels in both whole cells and DNA, and easily underwent intercellular reduction to release platinum(II) and DHQLO moieties. The released platinum(II) complex caused serious DNA damage by covalent conjunction with the DNA duplex, and remarkably increased the expression of the γ-H2AX protein. Moreover, 1b also caused serious mitochondria injury to induce mitochondrial membrane depolarization and increase ROS generation. Such actions upon DNA and mitochondria activate the p53 apoptotic pathway synergetically in tumor cells by upregulating the protein p53 and apoptotic proteins caspase9 and caspase3, which efficiently promoted the apoptotic death of tumor cells. Compound 1b with such synergic mechanism exhibited great potential in reversing cisplatin resistance and improving antitumor efficacies.