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Issue 39, 2019
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Combinations of furoxan and 1,2,4-oxadiazole for the generation of high performance energetic materials

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Abstract

Several energetic materials, which are composed of furoxan and 1,2,4-oxadiazole backbones, were synthesized by nitrating 3,3′-bis(5-amino-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-4,4′-azofuroxan (2) under 100 wt% HNO3 or 100 wt% HNO3/Ac2O followed by a cation metathesis. All synthesized compounds were fully characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis, while 3,3′-bis(1,2,4-oxadiazol-5(4H)-one-3-yl)-4,4′-azofuroxan (3) and diammonium 3,3′-bis(5-nitramino-1,2,4-oxadiazole-3-yl)-4,4′-azofuroxan (4a) were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The physicochemical and energetic properties of these compounds including density, thermal stability and sensitivity were investigated. Compounds 3 and 4 have high densities (3: 1.90 g cm−3, 4: 1.92 g cm−3), which are comparable to that of HMX (1.91 g cm−3). All energetic compounds show relatively high calculated heat of formation in the range from 504.79 kJ mol−1 to 1405.62 kJ mol−1. Their detonation properties were evaluated by EXPLO5 code using the measured density and calculated heat of formation. Among them, compounds 3 and 4 have good detonation performance (3: D = 8891 m s−1, P = 34.7 GPa, 4: D = 9505 m s−1, P = 41.3 GPa) and acceptable sensitivities (3: IS = 10 J, 4: IS = 4 J), which indicate their potential applications as high-performance energetic materials.

Graphical abstract: Combinations of furoxan and 1,2,4-oxadiazole for the generation of high performance energetic materials

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Publication details

The article was received on 26 Jun 2019, accepted on 03 Sep 2019 and first published on 04 Sep 2019


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C9DT02684C
Dalton Trans., 2019,48, 14705-14711

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    Combinations of furoxan and 1,2,4-oxadiazole for the generation of high performance energetic materials

    H. Xiong, H. Yang, C. Lei, P. Yang, W. Hu and G. Cheng, Dalton Trans., 2019, 48, 14705
    DOI: 10.1039/C9DT02684C

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