Capacity fading mechanism of tin phosphide anodes in sodium-ion batteries†
Tin phosphide (Sn4P3) is here investigated as an anode material in half-cell, symmetrical, and full-cell sodium-ion batteries. Results from the half-cells using two different electrolyte salts of sodium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (NaFSI) or sodium hexafluorophosphate (NaPF6) show that NaFSI provides improved capacity retention but results from symmetrical cells disclose no advantage for either salt. The impact of high and low desodiation cut-off potentials is studied and the results show a drastic increase in capacity retention when using the desodiation cut-off potential of 1.2 V as compared to 2.5 V. This effect is clear for both NaFSI and NaPF6 salts in a 1 : 1 binary mixture of ethylene carbonate and diethylene carbonate with 10 vol% fluoroethylene carbonate. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) results revealed that the thickness of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) changed during cycling and that SEI was stripped from tin particles when tin phosphide was charged to 2.5 V with NaPF6 based electrolyte.
- This article is part of the themed collection: New Talent: Europe