Structural limitations for optimizing garnet-type solid electrolytes: a perspective
Lithium ion batteries exhibit the highest energy densities of all battery types and are therefore an important technology for energy storage in every day life. Today's commercially available batteries employ organic polymer lithium conducting electrolytes, leading to multiple challenges and safety issues such as poor chemical stability, leakage and flammability. The next generation lithium ion batteries, namely all solid-state batteries, can overcome these limitations through employing a ceramic Li+ conducting electrolyte. In the past decade, there has been a major focus on the structural and ionic transport properties of lithium-conducting garnets, and the extensive research efforts have led to a thorough understanding of the structure–property relationships in this class of materials. However, further improvement seems difficult due to structural limitations. The purpose of this Perspective article is to provide a brief structural overview of Li conducting garnets and the structural influence on the optimization of Li-ionic conductivities.