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Issue 9, 2011
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Well-defined N-heterocyclic carbene silver halides of 1-cyclohexyl-3-arylmethylimidazolylidenes: synthesis, structure and catalysis in A3-reaction of aldehydes, amines and alkynes

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Abstract

Structurally well-defined N-heterocyclic carbene silver chlorides and bromides supported by 1-cyclohexyl-3-benzylimidazolylidene (CyBn-NHC) or 1-cyclohexyl-3-naphthalen-2-ylmethylimidazolylidene (CyNaph-NHC) were synthesized by reaction of the corresponding imidazolium halides with silver(I) oxide while cationic bis(CyBn-NHC) silver nitrate was isolated under similar conditions using imidazolium iodide in the presence of sodium nitrate. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed a dimeric structure through a nonpolar weak-hydrogen-bond supported Ag–Ag bond for 1-cyclohexyl-3-benzylimidazolylidene silver halides [(CyBn-NHC)AgX]2 (X = Cl, 1; Br, 2) but a monomeric structure for N-heterocyclic carbene silver halides with the more sterically demanding 1-cyclohexyl-3-naphthalen-2-ylmethylimidazolylidene ligand (CyNaph-NHC)AgX (X = Cl, 4; Br, 5). Cationic biscarbene silver nitrate [(CyBn-NHC)2Ag]+NO33 assumed a cis orientation with respect to the two carbene ligands. The monomeric complexes (CyNaph-NHC)AgX 4 and 5 showed higher catalytic activity than the dimeric [(CyBn-NHC)AgX]21 and 2 as well as the cationic biscarbene silver nitrate 3 in the model three component reaction of 3-phenylpropionaldehyde, phenylacetylene and piperidine with chloride 4 performing best and giving product in almost quantitative yield within 2 h at 100 °C. An explanation for the structure–activity relationship in N-heterocyclic carbene silver halide catalyzed three component reaction is given based on a slightly modified mechanism from the one in literature.

Graphical abstract: Well-defined N-heterocyclic carbene silver halides of 1-cyclohexyl-3-arylmethylimidazolylidenes: synthesis, structure and catalysis in A3-reaction of aldehydes, amines and alkynes

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
20 Aug 2010
Accepted
02 Dec 2010
First published
24 Jan 2011

Dalton Trans., 2011,40, 2046-2052
Article type
Paper

Well-defined N-heterocyclic carbene silver halides of 1-cyclohexyl-3-arylmethylimidazolylidenes: synthesis, structure and catalysis in A3-reaction of aldehydes, amines and alkynes

Y. Li, X. Chen, Y. Song, L. Fang and G. Zou, Dalton Trans., 2011, 40, 2046
DOI: 10.1039/C0DT01074J

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