Upgrading of marine (fish and crustaceans) biowaste for high added-value molecules and bio(nano)-materials
Currently, the Earth is subjected to environmental pressure of unprecedented proportions in the history of mankind. The inexorable growth of the global population and the establishment of large urban areas with increasingly higher expectations regarding the quality of life are issues demanding radically new strategies aimed to change the current model, which is still mostly based on linear economy approaches and fossil resources towards innovative standards, where both energy and daily use products and materials should be of renewable origin and ‘made to be made again’. These concepts have inspired the circular economy vision, which redefines growth through the continuous valorisation of waste generated by any production or activity in a virtuous cycle. This not only has a positive impact on the environment, but builds long-term resilience, generating business, new technologies, livelihoods and jobs. In this scenario, among the discards of anthropogenic activities, biodegradable waste represents one of the largest and highly heterogeneous portions, which includes garden and park waste, food processing and kitchen waste from households, restaurants, caterers and retail premises, and food plants, domestic and sewage waste, manure, food waste, and residues from forestry, agriculture and fisheries. Thus, this review specifically aims to survey the processes and technologies for the recovery of fish waste and its sustainable conversion to high added-value molecules and bio(nano)materials.